Riding in the Garden of the Gods

Academy Riding Stables in Colorado Springs advertises their rides go “where the pavement ends and the trail dust begins.” While that’s true of most trail rides, none of the others go through the otherworldly red rock formations of the Garden of the Gods.  trail and rockOnce a sacred spot where the Ute Nation came to worship their gods, the 1,400-acre site with Pikes Peak as its backdrop is now a municipal park open to hikers, riders, runners, and nature lovers. Paths meander through scrub and cactus and cross dry creek beds prone to flash floods after mountain thunderstorms.

There were no rains today. A few clouds dotted the sky and wisps of thistle down floated by on the faintest of breezes. The morning was warm and promised to be high-mountain, dry-climate hot by midday.

After a friendly and thorough briefing on riding basics and the technique to handle the sometimes steeps and rocky stretches we’d encounter, we set off.

Fran Trail Ride   My easy-going mare, Ice, a flyspecked Quarter Horse, was next-to-last in line. Only Katie Kopchik, who with her sister Kira was our guides, was behind us. She pointed out formations that evoked images of a sleeping Indian, ET, a rattlesnake poised to strike, and kissing camels.  Big rock

Ice, for her part, demonstrated the common sense of a foundation Quarter Horse, carefully considering which path to take up and down some intimidating rocky sections of the trail.

The stable has about 60 horses in its herd, all chosen for their good natures and stamina. The staff is equally pleasant and hard-working. Clearly experienced, they also clearly enjoy their job.

“This lets me share my passions: horses and the land,” 20-something Katie explained. She works year-round, and “that’s great, because I get to ride in all seasons. We ride in the winter and that’s beautiful. I take people out in thunderstorms. It’s really cool.” She then explains that the red color of the rocks comes from the high iron content in the soil and that attracts lightning more than a mobile home park. Garden of the Gods has the highest number of lightning strikes than any other spot in the country. Probably another sign of the Ute deities hovering in the rocks.

Party of Four

Academy Riding Stables is open year-round, with one and two-hour rides. Take the two hour to really see and appreciate the area. Riders must be over 8 years old and weigh less than 250 pounds. For younger riders, the stable has pony rides in an enclosed paddock. Reservations are required. Visit http://www.arsriding.com or call 888-700-0410.

All photos courtesy of Academy Riding Stables.

Riding in the Garden of the Gods

Academy Riding Stables in Colorado Springs advertises their rides go “where the pavement ends and the trail dust begins.” While that’s true of most trail rides, none of the others go through the otherworldly red rock formations of the Garden of the Gods.  trail and rockOnce a sacred spot where the Ute Nation came to worship their gods, the 1,400-acre site with Pikes Peak as its backdrop is now a municipal park open to hikers, riders, runners, and nature lovers. Paths meander through scrub and cactus and cross dry creek beds prone to flash floods after mountain thunderstorms.

There were no rains today. A few clouds dotted the sky and wisps of thistle down floated by on the faintest of breezes. The morning was warm and promised to be high-mountain, dry-climate hot by midday.

After a friendly and thorough briefing on riding basics and the technique to handle the sometimes steeps and rocky stretches we’d encounter, we set off.

Fran Trail Ride   My easy-going mare, Ice, a flyspecked Quarter Horse, was next-to-last in line. Only Katie Kopchik, who with her sister Kira was our guides, was behind us. She pointed out formations that evoked images of a sleeping Indian, ET, a rattlesnake poised to strike, and kissing camels.  Big rock

Ice, for her part, demonstrated the common sense of a foundation Quarter Horse, carefully considering which path to take up and down some intimidating rocky sections of the trail.

The stable has about 60 horses in its herd, all chosen for their good natures and stamina. The staff is equally pleasant and hard-working. Clearly experienced, they also clearly enjoy their job.

“This lets me share my passions: horses and the land,” 20-something Katie explained. She works year-round, and “that’s great, because I get to ride in all seasons. We ride in the winter and that’s beautiful. I take people out in thunderstorms. It’s really cool.” She then explains that the red color of the rocks comes from the high iron content in the soil and that attracts lightning more than a mobile home park. Garden of the Gods has the highest number of lightning strikes than any other spot in the country. Probably another sign of the Ute deities hovering in the rocks.

Party of Four

Academy Riding Stables is open year-round, with one and two-hour rides. Take the two hour to really see and appreciate the area. Riders must be over 8 years old and weigh less than 250 pounds. For younger riders, the stable has pony rides in an enclosed paddock. Reservations are required. Visit http://www.arsriding.com or call 888-700-0410.

All photos courtesy of Academy Riding Stables.

The Charms of Chattanooga

‘N Sync hasn’t recorded Chattanooga Choo-Choo, so the kids won’t know the words. But for parents, it’s impossible to drive into town without humming “Pardon me, boys…”

Yes, it’s Chattanooga, home of the Choo-Choo. The train is part of the history and one of the city’s attractions, but even without it, Chattanooga is a family playground. Attractions in town are within walking distance of each other or are linked by the free trolley. Outlying ones are clustered nearby. That limits choruses of “Are we there yet?” and most of the sightseeing is done while everyone still has energy.

The Tennessee River flows through the city. Much of the riverfront is open space and a riverwalk that takes advantage of the steeply rising bluffs. The Tennessee Aquarium sits on the riverbank. Devoted to freshwater ecology, it lets visitors vicariously experience the life of the creatures that swim just outside the building. Visitors walk ‘through’ the aquarium via an enclosed winding ramp with plenty of chances to get nose-to-gill through the glass.

Just a short stroll up the street is the Creative Discovery Museum. The discoveries start in the plaza outside the main entrance. Look closely, and you’ll notice that the sculpture of carefree children playing in the sunlight is actually a sundial.

The museum’s philosophy is ‘learning is child’s play,’ but kids can get frustrated here. Not because the museum isn’t fun, but because their parents are joining in – scrounging for dinosaur bones in one display and experimenting with optical illusions in another. The music studio, something not found in many kid-oriented science centers, has a great exhibit. The Shaker hymn “Simple Gifts” is heard in its traditional form, but also as a jazz piece, blues, rock, reggae, classical, and other musical styles.

The International Towing and Recovery Museum is the only museum in the world dedicated to tow trucks. Its collection of antique ‘wreckers,’ as the purists call them, is housed – appropriately enough – in an old car dealership. The old workhorses are enjoying a papered retirement; they’re as painted and polished as the Model Ts, Studebakers, and other passenger cars they hauled from ditches and muddy ruts.

Walnut Street Bridge links the north and south banks of the river. At 2370-feet long, it’s the longest pedestrian walkway in the world. Originally built in 1891, it was the only way to cross the river for thirty years. In the early 90s, engineers discovered it was structurally unsafe and closed it.

Rather than see it demolished, residents raised funds to repair and reopen it for foot traffic. Now, bikers, strollers, joggers, and dog-owners peddle, amble, trot, and walk across the river, surrounded by the ornate ironwork of the old bridge.

At the north end of the bridge is Coolidge Park. Named after Charles Coolidge, a Chattanooga resident who received the Medal of Honor, the park features interactive play fountains with squirting animals, an open lawn, and plenty of room for picnics. The main entrance, Medal of Honor Plaza, recognizes all recipients of the nation’s highest military honor.

The park’s main attraction is the Chattanooga Carousel. Rescued from decay in Atlanta, it’s been restored and fitted with 52 hand-carved animals. In addition to horses, the menagerie includes leaping tigers, well-dressed frogs, and friendly dinosaurs.

All of the carousel animals were carved at Horsin’ Around, the country’s only school where the vanishing art of carving carousel horses is taught. It’s a place of sawdust and smiling rabbits, half-assembled elephants and paint samples, the smell of fresh-cut wood and the sound of an old barrel organ.

Horsin’ Around is at the foot of Lookout Mountain, just outside the main part of town. Three of Chattanooga’s oldest and most famous attractions are on top or inside.

The most interesting way to reach the summit is via the Incline Railway. The steepest railway in the world has passengers looking nearly straight down between their feet as the car hauls itself up the mile of track.

The panoramic view from up top is a definite Kodak Moment, but it’s just as impressive inside the mountain. Viewing Ruby Falls means following a guide through caverns to a 145-foot waterfall deep inside the mountain. The falls were discovered by accident by workers who were engineering an elevator shaft in the caverns they already knew existed. They splash into a deep pool while colored lights play on the spraying water.

This is a good spot for lunch or a snack break. The garret of the visitors center, located in a stone building designed to resemble 15th century Irish castle, offers more fantastic views of the Tennessee Valley and a large play area for kids.

“See Rock City.” If there was ever a catch phrase for travel in the south, that’s it! For decades, the black-and-white admonition adorned barn roofs from Louisville to Asheville.

The original American tourist attraction started in the Depression years. Plans to create a mountaintop resort were derailed by the economic crisis, so Garnet Carter and his wife, Frieda, shifted their energies to Frieda’s dream of turning the precipice into an elaborate rock garden.

She laid out winding paths through the rock formations and planted hundreds of wildflowers and shrubs. A lover of German folklore, she imported statues of gnomes and fairytale characters and put them along the path, too. Many of them ended up inside the mountain, where underground grottos hold scenes from fairy tales to catch the imagination of children and their parents.

The rocky, jutting crag of the mountain promises a vista of seven states. Really? Current owner Bill Chapin, Garnet and Frieda’s grandson, grins with the impishness of one of the gnomes. “Depends on the weather and whether or not you want to see them all.”

No gnomes hid on Lookout Mountain in 1863, when Confederate and Yankee Troops fought for control of Chattanooga and the Tennessee River. The fog on the mountain and the smoke from the battle were so thick that the fight became known as The Battle Above the Clouds. That campaign routed the Confederates from the area and set the stage for Sherman’s advance on Atlanta.

The Battle of Chattanooga Electric Map and Museum explains the battles with a three-dimensional lighted diorama that uses 5,000 miniature soldiers, plus lighting and sound effects. It’s at the edge of Lookout Mountain, as the entrance to Point Park, where Confederate and later, Yankee, troops watched the city.

Surrounded as it is by the Tennessee River and the mountains, Chattanooga naturally offers lots of family outdoor activities. The adventures can be as mild as a 90-minute cruise on the Southern Belle. The sternwheeler paddleboat has a schedule of lunch and dinner cruises from April through October, with a limited schedule during the winter months. Family Night serves up prime rib for the parents and spaghetti for the kids. The daily lunch cruise has a “Build-Your-Own” sandwich buffet.

Back on shore, Suck Creek Cycle rents bikes, arranges and leads tours, and dispenses advice for bikers and tourists in the heart of town. It’s adjacent to the Aquarium and convenient to the Walnut Street Bridge.

Hundreds of miles of hiking trails meander their way through the mountains surrounding the city. Point Park, atop Lookout Mountain, has 25 miles of trails. That’s the closest hiking area to the city center. As the name hints, Fall Creek Falls State Park, has numerous waterfalls, including the 256-footer that gives the park its name. Prentice Cooper State Forest and South Cumberland State Recreational Area also boast over 13 miles of trails each.

No one’s exactly sure when the doors first opened, but the Mountain Opry may have started about the time the Sherman left for his march to the sea. Tucked away on the backside of Signal Mountain, it’s a regular Friday night gathering of local pickers, fiddlers, and singers performing authentic bluegrass and mountain music. Refreshments are hot dogs and popcorn; seats were rummaged from old movie houses and churches; the audience knows most each other and greet visitors like family. Admission is free, with a hat passed around on occasion to cover the costs of keeping the lights turned on.

And while they play a lot of mountain standards, no one recalls if any of the pickers every played a bluegrass version of “Chattanooga Choo-Choo.”

Kids and Canines: Perfect Camping Partners

Kids and dogs go together like peanut butter and jelly, so it’s only natural to take along the family pet when camping. But bringing along the dog means a little more than just loading him into the car. Advance planning and preparation will insure that you, the kids, and the pets all enjoy the outing.

 First, consider this is a good trip for Fido. If your plans include a lot of boating or biking or activities the dog can’t share, it might be better to leave him home rather than leave him tied up all day alone at the campsite.

 But that’s the exception. Your dog belongs with the rest of the family when everyone’s having a great time discovering the outdoors. Just remember that dogs sometimes find the call of the wild irresistible and set off like a four-legged Lewis and Clark. Make sure there’s some identification on him. A set of tags firmly fastened to his collar is fine, but for additional insurance, buy a collar with his name and your telephone number embroidered into the fabric.

 Campsite rules for both kids and pets are next. Most places require pets be tethered at the campsite. Even if it’s not required, it’s a courtesy to other campers who don’t share your love of animals or appreciate your dog inviting himself to lunch. While chaining the kids isn’t an option, they are also expected to respect the privacy of other campers, unless they’re invited over for a visit.

 Pre-Trip Training

If your pet isn’t used to being restrained, break him into the idea at home before you start packing. The kids can help a lot with this project. Put out the stake in the backyard and hitch your dog to it for an hour or so at a time. He might think he’s being punished, so make sure you and the kids stay very close. Deliver a lot of praise and try to do things with or near him. As he gets used to the idea, gradually increase the time you leave him tethered, and let him spend some of that time alone.

 If he has some favorite toys, keep those nearby, too, and bring them along on the trip. Just like your kids want their Gameboy for entertainment around the campfire at night, your dog will want his favorite bone or gnawed-on stuffed animal.

This is also a good time to get your dog used to walking on a leash, if he isn’t already. Many parks require dogs to be leashed even while hiking on trails away from campsites. It’s a safety feature as much as anything else. You really don’t want your dog to spot a deer and decide it looks like something that’ll be a lot of fun to chase.

A good compromise between a conventional short leash and letting the dog run free is a retractable leash. This lets the dog roam as much as 15 feet before reaching the end of the line. Putting the kids in charge of walking the dog is a good way to keep track of them on the trail, too.

Special Packing

Dogs and kids are really easy to pack for. Food is the first consideration. For the kids, it’s simple to come up with menus that are healthy but not hard to fix. Peanut butter and jelly, stews – precooked at home and frozen – or canned, simple vegetables and fruits, carrots and salads, apples and bananas, dry or instant cereals, and – of course – S’Mores, are all staples. Powdered milk is OK for cereal and cooking, but even the most calcium-conscious consumer cringes at actually drinking the stuff. Boxed juices are easier to deal with than powder or bottles.

Pets are even easier to plan meals for than kids. If you use bagged dry or canned food and want to bring it along, fine, but remember that those little cans get awfully heavy when you are carrying them on your back, and you have to carry out the remains of whatever you carry into the woods. A better idea is to use the small bags of prepackaged dog food. They are ideal: convenient, easy to store, and lightweight. And the small cellophane bag is a lot easier to dispose of than an empty can.

Get the dog used to the change in diet before the trip, though. Sudden switches in food give a lot of animals upset stomachs, with results that aren’t much fun to deal with. A week or more before the trip, add half a bag of the prepackaged food with each feeding and increase that until the dog is eating the prepackaged stuff entirely for a day or so before the trip. When you get back, reverse the feeding plan until your dog is back on his regular diet. If you have a lot of trips planned in a short time, it’s probably better to leave the dog entirely on the prepackaged food.

Basic Supplies

Kids know one of the great things about camping is that they’re supposed to get dirty and don’t have to take real baths until they get home. Bring along clean clothing, but don’t be surprised if the kids want to wear the same grungy t-shirt the entire trip. Also remember that wet denim gets very heavy and takes a very long time to dry. Have a backup pair (or two) of jeans, and have some pants in other material if you can.

For the dog, bring along several beach towels to dry him off when he finds a stream just before everybody beds down for the night. Where will he sleep? Do you want the dog inside the tent or tethered outside? Many animals are just as happy sleeping under the stars, but if your dog starts fussing and whining at the idea of being separated from the rest of his family, you don’t have much choice. You will undoubtedly wake up to find that he’s gently nudged you off your air mattress or is slumbering contentedly inside your child’s sleeping bag.

Medical Advice

There’s a more serious side to camping with a pet that’s easily accomplished with planning and a little paperwork. Make sure your dog is up to date with all of his shots, particularly rabies. Even timid dogs can become protective of their families and take on raccoons and other camp visitors.

While there’s no vaccine for people, you can get your dog inoculated against Lyme Disease, and it makes a lot of sense to do so. This tick-borne disease is found in almost every state. There are kits available for removing ticks from pets and people. You should check everybody – dogs and kids – for ticks every day.

Get a tick and fleas collar, too. These can break or become undone, so don’t attach your dog’s ID to it. The commercial collars sold at the grocery store seem to work just as well as any other brand, but if your vet suggests using another brand, there’s probably a good reason for it, and you should pay attention.

Carry a copy of your dog’s shot record. If he is injured or if you need to put him into a kennel for some reason, proof of his inoculations that will satisfy vets and kennel owners is required.

No matter how careful you are, there is still a chance of your dog getting hurt. It’s not a bad idea to check the local telephone book and get the number of a vet or an emergency clinic in the area you’re planning to visit. If there is an emergency, you can’t be sure that the campground, park ranger, or local residents will have that information.

Unless you are planning to go deep into the wilderness, you probably won’t need to know how to set broken bones or suture wounds, but you should still have a good, basic first aid kit for people and pets. With luck, cuts and scrapes, bug bites, and poison ivy will be the worst things you have to deal with.

Camping is a great way to build good memories for the family. After the first trip, don’t be surprised if your dog is the most enthusiastic member of the clan!

 Family Camping First Aid Kit For Your Dog

4″ square gauze pads: Dogs will try to chew off any sort of bandage. Bring lots.

Roll bandages:The cling-type are better than the gauze rollers. Dogs will try to chew these off, too. Bring lots.

Pain reliever:Aspirin can be given to dogs, as can other medicines. Check with your vet.

Antiseptic solution:The dog won’t like the way it stings and will probably try to lick it off.

Bug repellent: Put around the dog’s ears and the non-hairy parts of his body. If a  rash forms, or it really seems to bother the dog, wash it off.

Pepto-Bismol: Use the tablets. Trying to give dogs a liquid version of these products provides an                  evening’s worth of entertainment for the entire family, but very little gets insidethe dog!

Tweezers: To remove splinters or burrs. Porcupine quills probably require a vet’s care.

An old sock: Covers bandages, holds a dressing in place, and keeps leg injuries clean.

Leg from a pair of panty hose: It makes a strong, but gentle, restraint or instant muzzle.

Duct tape: It works better than most first aid tapes.

 

 

Damaged Mine Costs Climb in U.K. Strike

(World Mining Equipment. Excerpt)

The real costs of Britain’s miners’ strike can be measured in mines and jobs lost forever due to flooding, fires, collapsed supports, or the influx of dangerous methane gas. When the strike ended, 53 coal faces and 13 salvage faces had been lost. Another 85 faces and 60 roadways were in danger.

The floods, fires, and unworkable faces often occurred because striking miners refused to let maintenance supervisors into the pits to complete necessary safety work. Lost jobs, which could number in the thousands, provide an ironic note, since the main issue of the strike was the union’s demand to keep uneconomical pits open to preserve employment.

No formal strike vote was ever taken among union members. Even before the end of the action, about 51% of all miners returned to work, attracted by wage bonuses and the realization that the walkout was not achieving its goals.

Working mines were largely in the Midlands, leaving pits in pickets guarded the entrances – particularly in Wales and Yorkshire – at greatest risk.

Geology Not on Strike
Miners may strike, but nature does not. Geological conditions that are inherently dangerous during operations continue to need attention during a strike. Supervisors are in charge of safety conditions in the collieries. This includes watching for methane gas buildup and flooding, checking ventilation, insuring that roof supports are functioning properly, and monitoring the conditions of roadways and coal faces.

National Union of Miners (NUM) officials, however, encouraged picketing members to prevent supervisors from crossing their lines. The degree to which supervisors could keep a mine in good repair during the strike depended in part on the conditions of each mine, which varied considerably. Outside the pit, getting NUM approval to enter a strike-bound mine depended on the strength and sympathies of local union members toward the walkout. Safety inspections and repair work unusually followed intense lobbying by supervisors and management, according to Ralph Rawlinson, the Technical Director of Britain’s National Coal Board.

“One by one, people pressed away at the NUM officials and local workmen and suggested that the work should be done. It was an ever-changing pattern of support and cooperation, Rawlinson said.

Geologic pressures caused many of the problems. “Simply put, the roof starts to lower and the ground starts to lift up,” said Rawlinson. “The hydraulically powered roof supports used in long-wall coal faces can offer support to only a limited height.” The supports are cantilevered between working areas of coal faces and are not designed to sit idly and resist the earth’s forced for an indefinite time. Much of the equipment is currently stressed beyond its design. “The supports bend and split because they can’t handle the weight.”

There was little that safety teams could do where rood supports were concerned, other than inspect the equipment and chart its deterioration. Even when the NUM allowed the supervisors to take action, the only real insurance against deterioration of hydraulic equipment was to use it.

“The essence of success for a long-wall face is to keep moving,” Rawlinson explained. “Once a face is exhausted, you must move the equipment out of the mine or onto a new coal face. Maintaining a powered roof support when it is standing still is meaningless. The real answer is to work some coal and get the coal face to move forward.”

Flooding Closes Pits
While the conditions of roof supports were a matter of concern everywhere, flooding was a more localized problem. It was a particular concern in South Wales, according to Peter McNestry, the General Secretary of the National Association of Overmen, Deputies, and Shotfirers (NACODS). “Thirteen pits could be lost in South Wales,” he said. “We aren’t even sure of the full extent of the damage because there was a total strike in South Wales and our people haven’t been able to get into the mines.”

The damage flooding can cause is considerable. Rising water levels can interrupt ventilation, which must move down one shaft, through the underground workings, and up another shaft. Pumps must be operated and maintained as pipelines, removing water from coal faces. Regaining access to a flooded shaft implies setting up an auxiliary ventilation system. Small fans and tubing must be brought in and the roadway degassed by length, and then a new pump must be installed.

Based on the past history of a mine, the supervisors anticipated which coal faces could be flooded. The task then was convincing the NUM to allow them into the pit to take corrective action. Such was the case at the Askern Main Colliery in Yorkshire.

“We anticipated flooding because of changing patterns of ventilation we detected,” explained Rawlinson. “In that case, the NUM allowed the supervisors to inspect, and they found the flooding we had anticipated.” Even so, the pit is still in jeopardy.

Before the supervisors could enter Askern Main, the NUM had to allow capping work at the pit head. British law requires that the winding rope of the pit cage be renewed every two years and recapped every six months. At no less than 15 mines, that capping procedure has not been done because of the length of the strike, so no one can legally enter the mines for whatever reason.

Distinct Features: Moving from Commercial Video to Feature Films

Originally published in Avid Pronet

Forget Hollywood. The new hot spot for feature films is…
Ottawa, Canada?

That’s the master plan for Distinct Features, a production house that’s starting to get serious attention for its low-budget, high-quality feature films. With two features completed and three more in post-production, it’s moving towards realizing the dream of many small production houses – that of becoming a feature film studio.

Like many independent film studios, Distinct Features began life producing corporate and commercial videos. Derrick Diorio set up shop in Ottawa six years ago with an Avid Media Composer 8000 with the film option, a small staff, and a lot of ambition.

One of the staff was a 20-year-old film editor fresh out of college, Garry Tutte. Like his boss, Tutte wanted to work on feature films, but getting any sort of editing job satisfied him.

“When I first started, corporate videos were great. I was just happy to be working in my field and doing my thing.” Five years later, he’s Distinct Feature’s senior editor\designer. The designer part comes in because “I do a lot of the graphic design work as well as the editing.”

Ottawa is Canada’s capital city. Being a government town, there was a lot of work to be had. For five years, Diorio worked at building recognition with quality commercials and corporate and government work, until it raised the money for its first feature, a 16mm opus called “Two’s a Mob.” A parody of the Mafia movies popular at the time, it was – in Tutte’s words – “a great learning experience.”

Continue reading

Liverpool Project Built on Reclaimed Land

(Excerpt from piece originally published in World Construction)

An international garden festival exhibition grounds recently built on a 46-ha site was a flat wasteland of industrial landfill, disused oil tank depot, and a silted-up shipyard.

In 1982, when Liverpool, England won approval to hold an international festival, Europeans scoffed. The Germans and Dutch each spent at least five years and $90-million on their festivals held the preceding two years. Liverpool planned to open in less than half the time and with a budget of only $17-million. That the festival opened on time and within 2% of the budget is largely due to skillful site reclamation and to a triad of on-site management firms that provided control of scheduling and construction, design integrity, and costs on a daily basis.

Reclamation

Site reclamation was the first priority. Merseyside Development Corp., a local governmental agency, provided a $13.5-million grant to remove the storage tanks and shipyard structures. This work was planned before the festival was proposed. Once Liverpool won approval for the show, additional work began. At its peak, 35 subcontractors were involved in the reclamation.

One of the first tasks was the removal of silt from the shipyard. Westminster Dredging, a U.K. subsidiary of the Dutch Bos-Kalis Corp., used two C.Z. Eeem cutter-suction dredges to pump silt from the site. The dredges removed an average 10,000 tons of silt a day for eight weeks; 600,000 tones of silt was pumped into an adjacent dock for storage and eventual disposal at sea.

Continue reading